Global Bloodstream Infection Testing Market: General Outline
The growth of the global bloodstream infection testing market owes to the amplifying concerns of the population to maintain proper hygiene. Alongside this, the awareness quotient with regards to HIV, pneumonia, cancer, and other chronic diseases has led people across the world to endorse regular blood tests. This is expected to consolidate the market by ensuring a regular influx of people who want to be assured of their health. The healthcare centers have shown a propensity to maintain electronic health records in order to retain the medical history of patients. This calls for conduction of bloodstream infection testing of all the patients irrespective of their symptoms, thus, encapsulating a large base of patients for the market.
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Patient-centered healthcare has emerged as a prominent trend in the medical fraternity, making it mandatory for hospitals and healthcare units to equip themselves with the aids for bloodstream infection testing. Furthermore, the pervasiveness of digital technology in medicine has also boosted the market. The initiatives of various organizations to spread awareness about transfusion-transmitted infections have also been a media of growth for the market.
The market faces the brunt of strict regulatory policies with regards to testing and diagnosis. Moreover, the lack or absence of medical reimbursements in a variety of regions makes it impossible for the market to penetrate those regions. However, General Practitioners (GPs) and other medical professionals have started recommending bloodstream infection testing to all the patients, which is expected to keep accelerating the market. The medical benefits and focus on healthcare achieved by the U.S. is anticipated to make the market highly lucrative in the region.
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Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurs when a bacterial infection of someone else enters the bloodstream. It is difficult to determine the exact causes of BSI but it is considered that certain Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria are responsible for BSI. Fever, chills, high breathing rate, and nausea are common symptoms of BSI. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), patients with infections in the urinary tract, kidney, lung, and abdominal area are prone to suffer from BSI. In addition, people who are suffering with HIV or receiving chemotherapy treatment are at a higher risk of developing BSI. It is one of the serious complications for patients who are admitted in critical care units. This infection not only lengthens the hospital stays, but also increases the chances of life-threatening comorbidities and sometimes leads to death. As per an article published in the Journal of Laboratory Physicians in 2014, it was estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 new cases of BSI occur every year worldwide.
Bloodstream infections are mostly diagnosed by blood culture tests and molecular tests. Commercially available tests are SepsiTest, SeptiFast, MagicPlex, VYOO, and PLEX-ID. The global bloodstream infection testing market is driven by the growing incidence and prevalence of burn/wounds cases, HIV, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, and cancer. Additionally, awareness about hygiene, diagnosis rate, unhealthy lifestyle, and increase in geriatric population are the potential factors for the market growth. On the other hand, rigid regulatory scenario regarding diagnosis procedures, high diagnosis cost, and lack of medical reimbursement may hinder the growth of the market during the forecast period. Innovations, R&D investments, mergers and acquisitions among the key vendors are the dynamics for the bloodstream infection testing market to progress.
In terms of test type, the global bloodstream infection testing market is compartmentalized into conventional blood culture tests, PCR methods, nucleic acid testing, mass spectroscopy, and point of care testing. Based on product type, the global market is segmented into instruments, reagents, and others. The reagents segment accounts for a high market share as compared to the instruments segment due to higher volume of sales of reagents.
In terms of end-user, the global market is bifurcated into hospitals, independent diagnostic centers, and others (research or academic institutes). Based on application, the global market is segmented into hospital acquired bloodstream infections and community based bloodstream infections. A study published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology depicted that more than 50% of the study sample acquired bloodstream infections in hospitals or other health care centers as compared to community based setting. A similar study also highlighted that the mortality rate in hospital settings is much higher than that of the community based setting.
Geographically, the global bloodstream infection testing market is segmented into five regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. According to a Canadian study (2013), the rate of the BSI in the U.S. is 51-126 per 100,000 population and 40-84 per 100,000 population in Canada per year. North America accounts for the largest market share of the global market owing to factors such as high infection rate, increase in awareness, high diagnosis rate, favorable medical reimbursement scenario, and developed medical facilities. It is followed by Europe in terms of market share. Asia Pacific is anticipated to hold the third largest market share owing to large population pool and poor hygienic sense. Latin America and Middle East & Africa are the silent contributors of the market.
Key vendors operating in the market include Becton Dickinson, Cepheid, Roche Diagnostics, Thermo Fisher Scientific, bioMérieux, and Luminex Corporation. Notable key developments include a) point-of-care diagnosis test kit launched by the University of California, Irvine in November 2014 and b) marketing approval of PhenoTest BC Kit (Accelerate Diagnostic) from Foods and Drugs Administration, USA in February 2017.